The New Testament
The New Testament was first written in the Greek language.
The New Testament consists of 27 books
1. The Gospels
- The gospels (from Old English, "good news") consist of the first four books of the New Testament that describe the birth, life, ministry, crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The books of the gospel are: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.
- The word gospel derives from the Old English god-spell (rarely godspel), meaning "good tidings" or "good news". It is a calque (word-for-word translation) of the Greek word εὐαγγέλιον, euangelion (eu- "good", -angelion "message"). The Greek word "euangelion" is also the source of the term "evangelist" in English.
2. Acts of the Apostles
- This book of the bible is commonly referred to as simply "Acts". For simplification, some choose to group this book along with the four gospels.
- Apostle means one who is sent forth, who is entrusted with a mission.
- Acts tells the story of the Apostolic Age of the Early Christian church, with particular emphasis on the ministry of the Twelve Apostles and of Paul of Tarsus. The early chapters, set in Jerusalem, discuss Jesus' Resurrection, his Ascension, the Day of Pentecost, and the start of the Twelve Apostles' ministry. The later chapters discuss Paul's conversion, his ministry, and finally his arrest and imprisonment and trip to Rome.
4. General Epistles
- An epistle (Greek επιστολη, epistolē, meaning letter) is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of persons, usually long and formal, often instructive and elegant.
- The 8 general epistles (letters) consist of Hebrews, James, John 1 and 2, Peter 1,2, and 3, and Jude.
- These books are termed "general" epistles because for the most part their intended audience seems to be Christians in general rather than individual persons or congregations as is the case with the Pauline epistles.
- The epistles of James and Jude are traditionally attributed to the brothers of Jesus with the same name.
3. Pauline Epistles
- The Epistles of Paul, or Letters of Paul, are the thirteen New Testament books believed to be authored by Paul the Apostle. These books are: Romans, First and Second Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, First and Second Thessalonians, First and Second Timothy, Titus, and Philemon.
- These letters provide an insight into the beliefs and controversies of formative Christianity and, as part of the canon of the New Testament, they have also been, and continue to be, foundational to Christian theology and ethics.
- Most of the epistles of the New Testament were written by Paul.
5. Apocalyptic (End of time prophecy)
- The Book of Revelation, also called Revelation to John, Apocalypse of John and Revelation of Jesus Christ is the last canonical book of the New Testament in the Christian Bible. It is the only biblical book that is wholly composed of apocalyptic literature. Some group Revelations in with the general epistles.
- Apocalyptic: of, or relating to an apocalypse; portending future disaster, devastation and doom; revelatory or prophetic.
- Apocalypse: Greek word for "revelation," or "unveiling," or "uncovering." The visible appearing of Jesus to the world in full power and splendor. Also refers to the appearance of the Antichrist on the stage of history following the rapture.